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November 9, 2012

Shqiperia nder shekuj

Albania
 
[Ottoman flag (to 1912)]
                  to 20 Dec 1912 
 
[Autonomous Albania, 1912]
 Jun 1912 - 28 Nov 1912 Autonomous Albanians 
 
[Albanian flag 1912-1913]
            28 Nov 1912 - 29 Jul 1913 
 
[Essad's provisional government 1914-1916 (Albania)]
   19 Jul 1913 - 7 Mar 1914 Esat Toptani govt

[Albanian principality 1914-1920]
          7 Mar 1914 - 20 Jan 1920

[Albania de facto Flag used in 1914-15]
            Sep 1914 - 1915  (de facto)

[Essad's provisional government 1914-1916 (Albania)]
  21 Apr 1915 - 24 Feb 1916 Esat Toptani govt

[Albania, Tsuri's rebellion 1914-1917]
  Sep 1914 - 1917 (unofficial) Bairam Tsuri's flag 

[Albania Republic under Italian control 1917-18]
23 Jun 1917 - 1918 Republic in Italian Zone

[Albania Regency in Italian zone, 1918]
 1918 - 20 Jan 1920 Regency in Italian Zone

[Albanian Flag 1920-1929]
            20 Jan 1920 - 8 Aug 1929

[Kingdom of Albania 1929-1934]
                8 Aug 1929 - 1934

[Kingdom of Albania, 1934-1939, 1943-1944]
   1934 - 3 Jun 1939, 25 Jul - 20 Oct 1943

[Italian Albania flag 1939-1943]
              3 Jun 1939 - 25 Jul 1943

[Albania under German occupation, 1943-44]
                   20 Oct 1943 - 10 Oct 1944

[Albanian Provisional autonomous government (1943)]
            14 Sep 1943 - 10 Oct 1944 
          (provisional; Communist govt.)
 
[Provisional Democratic Government of Albania, 1944-46]
   10 Oct 1944 - 14 Mar 1946 (provisional)
 
 
[Albania flag 1946-1992]  
          14 Mar 1946 - 7 Apr 1992
 
 
[Albania flag]
               Adopted 7 Apr 1992



Map of Albania
Hear National Anthem
"Hymni i Flamurit"
(Hymn to the Flag)
Text of National Anthem
Adopted 1912
Constitution
 (28 Nov 1998)
-----------------------
Royal Constitution
(1 Dec 1928-1946; in French)
Capital: Tiranë
(Durrës 1914-8 Feb 1920;
Vlorë 1912-1914;
Krujë 1190-1392, 1443-1468)
Currency: Lek (ALL)
National Holiday: 28 Nov (1912)
Independence Day
Population: 3,002,859 (2011)
GDP: $24.9 billion (2011)
note: Albania has a large
informal sector that may be as
large as 50% of official GDP 
Exports: $1.88 billion (2011)
Imports: $5.02 billion (2011)
Ethnic groups: Albanian 91.7%, Vlach (Aromanian) 3.6%,
Greek 2.3%, other (Roma/Gypsy, Serb, and Bulgarian)
2.4% (2000 est.) 
Total Active Armed Forces: 14,295 (2010)
Merchant marine: 17 ships (2010)
Religions: Muslim 68% (Sunni 51%, Bektashi 17%), Albanian
 Orthodox 22%,
Roman Catholic 10% (2005)
 (religious observances prohibited 1967-Nov 1990)
International Organizations/Treaties: APM, BSEC, BTWC, CCM, CE, CEFTA, CEI, CTBT, CWC, EAPC, EBRD, ESCR, EU (potential candidate), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, ICSID, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, IRENA, ISA, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, KP, MIGA, NATO, NPT, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PAM, PCA, SECP, SELEC, UN, UNCLOS, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFCC, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Albania Index
Chronology
1190 - 1255                Albanian Principality
1204 - 1272                Part of the Despotate of Epirus,
Durrës (Durazzo)
                             
is taken 1215; (under Byzantine, then Bulgarian
                             influence).
1259 - 1268                Occupied by Norman Kingdom of Naples.
1272                       Kingdom of Albania, under suzerainty of
Kingdom
                             of Naples; reduced to enclave of Durazzo by 1358.
1368                       Albanian Principality
1376 - 1379                Partly occupied by Duchy of Athens (Catalan Co.)
1384                       Ottoman conquest of Albanian principalities and 
                             tribes begun.
18 Aug 1392 - 15 Aug 1501  Venetian rule in Durrës (Durazzo).
1396 - 26 Jan 1479         Venetian rule in Shkodër (Skutari).
 1 Mar 1444 - 17 Jan 1468  Gjergj Kastrioti (Skanderbeg) leads an Albanian
                             state in central Albania.
1466                       Vlorë (Valona) part of the Ottoman Empire (from 
                             1810 - 1846 part of Rumelia [see Bulgaria], and
                             from 1846 part of Janina [see Greece]).
16 Jun 1478                Interior regions (Krujë) part of Ottoman Empire.
26 Jan 1479                Shkodër part of the Ottoman Empire.
15 Aug 1501                Durrës part of the Ottoman Empire.
1506                       Ottoman conquest completed; Albanian lands divided
                             into several Elayets or provinces: Rumelia 
                             (see Bulgaria), Yanya (see Greece), Monastir
                             (1846-1877, see Macedonia), Ishkodra, Uskib 
                             (1846-1863, see Macedonia), Valorë (to 1810),
                             and (from 1877)
Kosovo (see Serbia).
10 Jun 1878 - Apr 1881     Albanian rebellion under the League of Prizren
                             (see under Kosovo).
23 Aug 1912                Ottoman Empire agrees to grant limited autonomy
                             (autonomy for the Albanians, not for Albania).
 1 Nov 1912 - 26 Oct 1913  Serbia occupies Durrës.
28 Nov 1912                Independence declared.
23 Apr 1913 -  6 May 1913  Shkodër occupied by Montenegro.
14 May 1913 - 1914         Shkodër under international military 
                             administration.
30 May 1913                Autonomy granted by Allies in Treaty of London.
29 Jul 1913                Independence recognized by the great powers.
Jan 1914 -  7 Mar 1914     Under an International Commission 
                             (Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, 
                             Italy, and Russia).
 7 Mar 1914                Albanian Principality
 5 Sep 1914 - 19 Sep 1914  Under an International Commission (s.a.).
26 Dec 1914 -  2 Sep 1920  Italy occupies Vlorë and parts of Southern Albania
                             in 1915 - 1917; and from Nov 1918 former 
                             Austro-Hungarian occupied areas. 
14 Jun 1915 - 23 Jan 1916  Shkodër occupied by Montenegro.
Jan 1916 - 13 Nov 1918     Northern and Central Albania occupied by 
                             Austria-Hungary (and Bulgaria in the east from 
                             1915).
Jun 1916 - 26 May 1920     District of Korce and the south under French 
                             occupation.
1919                       Albanian provisional government recognized by 
                             Italy as the legal government of the Italian 
                             protected zone.
22 Aug 1920                Italy recognizes the independence of Albania.
17 Jul 1921 - 20 Nov 1921  Proclamation of an independent Mirditë republic in
                             the north, backed by Yugoslavia.
 9 Nov 1921                The Great Powers confirmed the independence of 
                             Albania, within its frontiers of about 1913.
31 Jan 1925                Albanian Republic (proclaimed 22 Jan 1925).
27 Nov 1926                Treaty of Alliance and Security of Tiranë signed 
                             with Italy, by 1938 Albania becomes a de facto 
                             Italian protectorate.
 1 Sep 1928                Albanian Kingdom
 7 Apr 1939                Invaded by Italy.
16 Apr 1939 -  3 Sep 1943  Personal union with Italy (de facto annexation).
 8 Jul 1940 - 24 Apr 1941  Greek occupation of northern Epirus.
29 Jun 1941 - 20 Oct 1944  Kosovo, part of western Macedonia (Kercova, Dibra,
                             Tetovo, and Struga) and small parts of
                             Montenegro (Ulcinj and few villages east of
                             Podgorica) are annexed to Albania
                             (formally 3 Dec 1941).
Sep 1944 - 20 Oct 1944     Kumanovo and surroundings in formerly Bulgarian
                             Macedonia are annexed to Albania.
 8 Sep 1943 - 25 Oct 1944  German occupation (last forces expelled 29 Nov 1944)
10 Oct 1944                Provisional Democratic Government of Albania
                             (in opposition to Germans until 25 Oct 1944).
11 Jan 1946                People's Republic of Albania
28 Dec 1976                People's Socialist Republic of Albania
30 Apr 1991                Republic of Albania
11 Apr 1997 - 14 Aug 1997  Multinational Protection Force in Albania.
29 Jun/6 Jul 1997          Referendum 66% reject restoration of the monarchy.
French Korce Zone
 (1916-1920)
Italian Zone
(1916-1920)
Northern Epirus
(1914, 1940-41)
Mirditë Republic
(1921)
Saseno Island
(1915-1944)
Albanian Orthodox
Church

 
 
First Secretaries of the Albanian (Communist) Party of Labor
 8 Nov 1941 - 11 Apr 1985  Enver Hoxha                       (b. 1908 - d. 1985)
                           (Secretary of the Central Committee
                            to Feb 1943)
11 Apr 1985 - 13 Apr 1985  Vangjel Çërrava                   (b. 1941)
                           + Lenka Çuko (f)                  (b. 1938)
                           + Simon Stefani                   (b. 1929)
                           (secretaries)
13 Apr 1985 -  4 May 1991  Ramiz Tafë Alia                   (b. 1925 - d. 2011)
Princes of Albania
1190 - 1198                Progon
1198 - 1208                Gjin Progoni                      (d. 1208)
1208 - 1216                Dhimitër Progoni                  (d. 1216)
1216 - 1253?               Grigor Kamona
1253? - 1255               Gulam
Kings of Albania
Feb 1272 -  7 Jan 1285     Charles I of Naples               (b. 1266 - d. 1285)
1285 - 1294                Charles II "the Lame"             (b. 1254 - d. 1309)

Lords of Albania
1294 - 26 Dec 1331         Philip I
of Taranto               (b. 1278 - d. 1331)
26 Dec 1331 - 1332         Robert II of Taranto              (b. 1319 - d. 1364)
Dukes of Durazzo
1332 -  5 Apr 1336         John of Gravina                   (b. 1294 - d. 1336)
1336 - 23 Jan 1348         Charles                           (b. 1323 - d. 1348)
1348 - 1368                Joanna -Duchess                   (b. 1344 - d. 1387)
                           - jointly with -
1366 - 1365                Louis of Évreux                   (b. 1341 - d. 1376)
Princes of Albania (in Durrës) 
1358 - 1383                Karl (Carlo) Thopia (1st time)    (b. 1331 - d. 1388)
1383 - 18 Sep 1385         Balsha II Balsavich of Zeta       (d. 1385)
1385 - Jan 1388            Karl Thopia (2nd time)            (s.a.)
1388 - 1392                Gjergj (George) Thopia            (d. 1392) 
1443 -  2 Mar 1444         Andrea II Thopia
Venetian Bailiffs and Captains (Baili e Capitani) of Durrazo (Durrës)

1392                       Marino Cocco
1392 - 1393                Paolo da Canale
1393 - 1395                Francesco Giorgio
1395 - 1397                Francesco Dandolo
1397 - 1398                Pietro Michieli
1398 - 1399                Gabriele Nadal
1399 - 1400                Pietro Mocenigo
1400 - 1403                Giovanni Valaresso
1403 - 1405                Ranieri Venier
1405 - 1407                Antonio Bollani
1407 - 1408                Pietro Arimondo
1408 - 1410                Antonio Ferro
1410 - 1412                Giorgio Loredano
1412 - 1414                Matteo Gradenigo
1414 - 1415                Biagio Malipiero
1415 - 1417                Bertuccio Contarini
1417 - 1419                Jacopo Darnerio
1419 - 1421                Giovanni Morosini
1421 - 1422                Lorenzo Foscarini
1422                       Paolo Bondumier
1422 - 1423                Andrea Dolfin
1423 - 1424                Gherardo Sagredo
1424 - 1425                Giovanni Venier
1425                       Zaccaria Nadal
1425 - 1426                Giuliano Loredano
1426 - 1427                Niccolo Venier
1427 - 1429                Michele Minio
1429 - 1430                Moise Suriano (1st time)
1430 - 1432                Pietro Contarini
1432 - 1433                Niccolo da Molin
1433 - 1435                Francesco Priuli
1435 - 1438                Ferigo Loredano
1438 - 1440                Marco Renier
1440 - 1442                Pasquale Gradenigo
1442 - 1444                Girolano Gradenigo
1444 - 1447                Giovanni Contarini
1447 - 1450                Paolo Zane
1450                       Alessandro Falier
1450 - 1452                Giovanni Marcello
1452 - 1454                Moise Suriano (2nd time)
1454 - 1455                Marco Diedo
1455 - 1460                Francesco Barbo
1460 - 1463                Pietro da Mosto
1463 - 1466                Paolo Quirini
1466 - 1468                Bartolomeo Contarini
1468 - 1471                Stefano Magrio
1471 - 1475                Pietro Zane
1475 - 1477                Francesco Marcello
1477 - 1479                Luigi Cornaro
1479 - 1482                Andrea Marcello
1482 - 1485                Niccolo Morosini
1485 - 1486                Girolamo Abramo
1486 - 1487                Giovanni Bollani
1487 - 1490                Francesco Zane
1490 - 1492                Marco Zeno
1492 - 1495                Paolo Zane
1495 - 1498                Donato Baffo
1498 - 1500                Vito Diedo
1500 - 1501                Vincenzio Qurini
Walis (governors) of Valona (Valore)
1466 - 1810                ....
 1 Mar 1444 - 17 Jan 1468  Gjergj Kastrioti (Skanderbeg)    (b. 1403 - d. 1468)
                             (Prince, in rebellion)
Walis
of Yanya
(Janina) 
1670 - 1911                see under Greece
Walis of Ishkodra (Shkodër)
1479 - 173.                ....
173. - 173.                Hodaverdi
173. - 1740                Süleyman Pasha Çausholli
1740 - 1747                Jusuf Pasha Çausholli
1746                       Mehmet Bushatli (in rebellion)
1747 - 1755                ....
1755 - 1757                Ömer Pasha Kavajë 
1757 - 14 Jul 1775         Mehmed Pasha Bushati              (d. 1775)
14 Jul 1775 - 1775         Mehmed Pasha Küstendili
1775 - 1778                Mustafa Pasha                     (d. 1778)
1778 - 22 Sep 1796         Kara Mahmut Pasha Bushati         (b. 1758 - d. 1796)
22 Sep 1796 - 1810         Ibrahim Pasha Bushati             (d. 1810)
                             (in opposition from 1793)
 3 May 1812 -  9 Oct 1831  Mustafa Pasha Bushati             (b. 1797 - d. 1860)
1831 - 1832                Morali Namik Ali Pasha
1833 - 1835                
Çerkes Hafiz Pasha
1835 - 1838                Bayram Beg
1838 - 1842                Hasan Pasha
1842 - 1843                Reza Pasha
1843 - 1854                Osman Mazhar Pasha
Jul 1854 - Sep 1854        Osman Pasha
Sep 1854 - Jan 1855        Sarayli Mehmed Ragib Pasha
Jan 1855 - Mar 1855        Hekimbashi Ismail Pasha
Apr 1855 - Dec 1855        Agha Abdulaziz Pasha              (d. 1855)
Dec 1855 - Nov 1857        Ataullah Pasha
Nov 1857 - Oct 1861        Çerkes Abdi Pasha (1st time)
Oct 1861 - Apr 1862        Mehmed Rashid Pasha
Apr 1862 - Apr 1863        
Çerkes Abdi Pasha (2nd time)
Apr 1863 - Dec 1864        Aziz Pasha
Dec 1864 - May 1868        Divitçi Ismail Hakki Pasha
                             (1st time)
May 1868 - Dec 1868        Kücük Omer Fevzi Pasha
Dec 1868 - Aug 1870        Sakizli Ahmed Esad Pasha
Aug 1870 - Sep 1871        Divitçi Ismail Hakki Pasha
                             (2nd time)
Sep 1871 - Jan 1872        Giritli Mustafa Asim Pasha
                             (1st time)
Apr 1872 - Jan 1873        Sevket Pasha
Jan 1873 - Mar 1873        Fosfor Mustafa Sidki Pasha
Mar 1873 - May 1873        Gürcü Ali Pasha
May 1873 -  7 Nov 1873     Sevket Pasha                      (d. 1873)
Nov 1873 - Sep 1874        Ahmed Razim Pasha                 (b. 1826 - d. 1897)
Oct 1874 - May 1876        Mustafa Eshref Pasha
              (d. 1873)
May 1876 - Aug 1876        Yakali Ali Pasha                  (d. 1876)
Aug 1876 - Jul 1878        Alyanak Mustafa Pasha             (d. 1884)
1878                       Hüseyin Pasha
Nov 1878 - Nov 1879        Arif Pasha
Nov 1879 - Aug 1880        Mehmed Izzet Pasha
Aug 1880 - Apr 1882        Çürüksulu Osman Ziya Pasha        (d. 1908)
Apr 1882 - Jul 1883        Abdi Pasha
Aug 1883 - May 1884        Hasan Pasha
May 1884 - Jan 1887        Giritli Mustafa Asim Pasha
                             (2nd time)
Jan 1887 - Aug 1888        Tahir Pasha
Aug 1888 - Jan 1891        
Çürüksulu Süleyman Bahri Pasha        
Oct 1891 - Jul 1894        Bursali Abdülkerim Pasha
Jul 1894 - Jun 1896        Osman Fevzi Pasha                 (d. 1924)
Jun 1896 - Jul 1898        Hasan (Edip) Adib Pasha           (b. 1834 - d. 1904)
Jul 1897 - Nov 1901        Alpa Kazim Pasha                  (b. 1839 - d. 1936)
Nov 1901 - May 1903        Shakir Pasha
May 1903 - Apr 1906        Haydar Pasha
Apr 1906 - Feb 1907        Salih Sekki (Zeki) Pasha          (b. 1848 - d. 1908)
Feb 1907 - Dec 1907        Hilmi Pasha
Dec 1907 - Feb 1908        Dagistanli Seyfullah Pasha
Jun 1908 - Sep 1908        Mustafa Nuri Bey
Sep 1908 - Dec 1908        Yeniser Fenerli Seyfettin Bey
Dec 1908 - May 1909        Fahri Pasha
May 1909 - Sep 1910        Agabeyzade 
Çemal Pasha
Sep 1910 - May 1911        Manastirli Hasan Bedrieddin Beg
May 1911 - Jan 1912        Mustafa Nedim Beg
1912                       Esad Pasha Toptani                (b. c.1863 - d. 1920)
25 Jun 1911 - 1912         Sevket Torgut Pasha
Jan 1912 - Mar 1912        Hayri Pasha
Mar 1912 - Apr 1913        Hasan Riza Pasha           
Leader of Albanian Revolt
Apr 1912 - 23 Aug 1912     Hasan Bej Prishtina               (b. 1873 - d. 1933)
Chairman of the International Military Commission for Shkodër

14 May 1913 - Nov 1913     Sir Cecil Burney (U.K.)           (b. 1858 - d. 1926) 
Chairman of the National Assembly
28 Nov 1912 - 29 Nov 1912  Ismail Qemali Bej                 (b. 1844 - d. 1919)
Chairman of the Provisional Government
29 Nov 1912 - 22 Jan 1914  Ismail Qemali Bej                 (s.a.)
Chairman Council of Elders of Central Albania
12 Oct 1913 - 12 Feb 1914  Esat Salih Pashë Toptani          (b. 1863 - d. 1920)
                             (in opposition in Durrës)
Chairman of the Central Government
22 Jan 1914 -  7 Mar 1914  Fejzi Bej Alizoti                 (b. 1876 - d. 1945)
International Control Commission
22 Jan 1914 -  7 Mar 1914  Commissioners
                           (constituted on 15 Oct 1913)
                           - Léon-Alphonse-Thaddé Krajewski  (b. 1863 - d. 19..)
                              (France)(1st time)
                           - Harry Harling Lamb (U.K.)       (b. 1857 - d. 1948)
                              (1st time)
                           - Alessandro Leoni (Italy)        (b. 1852 - d. 19..)
                              (1st time)
                           - Aleksandr Mikhailovich Petrayev
                              (Russia)
(1st time)
                           - Aristoteles Petrović
                             
(Austria-Hungary)
                           - Julius Winckel (Germany)(1st time)
                           - Ahmet Myfit Neki Bej Libohova   (b. 1876 - d. 1927) 
                              (Albania)
Sovereign Prince
¹

 7 Mar 1914 -  3 Sep 1914  Wilhelm zu Wied                   (b. 1876 - d. 1945)
                            (in exile formally until 31 Jan 1925)
Chairman of the Administrative Commission
 3 Sep 1914 - Sep 1914     Qamil Musa Haxhi Feza
International Control Commission
 3 Sep 1914 -  6 Sep 1914  Commissioners
                           - Léon-Alphonse-Thadée Krajewski   (s.a.) 
                              (France)(2nd time)
                           - Harry Harling Lamb (U.K.)        (s.a.)
                              (2nd time)
                           - Alessandro Leoni (Italy)         (s.a.)
                              (2nd time)
                           - Aleksandr Mikhailovich Petrayev
                              (Russia)(2nd time)
                           - Julius Winckel (Germany)(2nd time)
                           - Mehdi Abdyl Bej Frashëri         (b. 1872 - d. 1963)
                              (Albania)
                           - A
ugust Ritter von Kral           (b. 1859 - d. 1918)
                              (Austria-Hungary)
Chairman of the General Council of the Albanian Senate
11 Sep 1914 -  5 Oct 1914  Mustafa Bej Ndroqi
Chairman of the Provisional Government

 5 Oct 1914 - 24 Feb 1916  Esat Salih Pashë Toptani           (s.a.)
                            (in France exile to 1920)
24 Feb 1916 - 28 Dec 1918  No national government
Austro-Hungarian Military Commanders in Albania
Jan 1916 - Sep 1918        the Austro-Hungarian commanders in Serbia
Sep 1918 - 13 Nov 1918     Karl Frieherr von Pflanzer-Baltin  (b. 1855 - d. 1925)
Chairman of the Provisional Government
28 Dec 1918 - 28 Jan 1920  Turhan Pashë Permeti (in Durrës)   (b. 1846 - d. 1927)
Chairman of the National Government
28 Jan 1920 - 30 Jan 1920  Sulejman Bej Delvina               (b. 1882 - d. 1932)
30 Jan 1920 - 22 Dec 1921  High Council
                           (nominally for Wilhelm zu Wied)
                           - Aqif Pashë Biçaku                (b. 18.. - d. 1926)
                             (to 11 Dec 1921)  
                           - Abdi Bej Toptani                 (b. 1864 - d. 1942)
                           - Luigi Bumçi, Bishop of Lezhë     (b. 1872 - d. 1945)
                             (to 11 Dec 1921)  
                           - Mihal Turtulli
22 Dec 1921 - 25 Dec 1921  Idhomene Kosturi                   (b. 1873 - d. 1943) 
                            (acting head of state [nominally for Wilhelm zu Wied])
25 Dec 1921 - 31 Jan 1925  High Council
                            (nominally for Prince Wilhelm zu Wied)
                           - Omer Pashë Vrioni                (b. 1839 - d. 1928)
                             (to 22 Jan 1922)
                           - Ndoc Pistulli
                             (to 22 Jan 1922)
                           - Sotir Jovan Peci                 (b. 1873 - d. 1932)
                             (sole member acting acting for 
                              entire Concil Jun 1924-Jul 1924;
                              then left the country)
                           - Refik Seit Bej Toptani
                             (left country Jun 1924; returned
                              and sole member acting for the
                              entire Council from 24 Dec 1924) 
                           - Xhafer Asilan Bej Ypi            (b. 1880 - d. 1940)
                             (2 Dec 1922 - 10 Jun 1924, from 24 Dec 1924;
                              left country Jun 1924)
                           - Gjon Çoba
                             (2 Dec 1922 - 10 Jun 1924, from 24 Dec 1924)
16 Jun 1924 - 23 Dec 1924  Regional Leaders (in rebellion)
                           - Rexhep Shala (military commander
                              of Shkodër, Leader in Northern Albania)
                           - Kasëm Qafzezi (military commander
                              of Përmeti, Leader in Southern Albania)
 2 Jul 1924 - 24 Dec 1924  Bishop Theofan "Fan" Stilian Noli  (b. 1882 - d. 1965)  DP
                             (acting for High Council)
                             (from 10 Jun 1924 in rebellion as
                             Chairman of to the Provisional
                             Government Committee at Vlorë)
President
 1 Feb 1925 -  1 Sep 1928  Amet Zogu                          (b. 1895 - d. 1961)
Kings¹
 1 Sep 1928 -  8 Apr 1939  Zog I Skënderbeg III               (s.a.)
                            (in exile to 11 Jan 1946) 
 9 Apr 1939 - 12 Apr 1939  Xhafer Asilan Bej Ypi              (s.a.)
                            (chairman Provisional Administration Committee)
12 Apr 1939 - 16 Apr 1939  Shefqet Bej Vërlaci                (b. 1877 - d. 1946)
                            (acting head of state)
16 Apr 1939 -  3 Sep 1943  Viktor Emanueli III                (b. 1869 - d. 1947)
                            (Vittorio Emanuele III)
Commander of the Italian Overseas Expeditionary Corps
(in charge of the conquest of Albania)
 7 Apr 1939 - 23 Apr 1939  Alfredo Guzzoni                    (b. 1877 - d. 1965) 
Lieutenants-general (representing Vittorio Emanuele III)
22 Apr 1939 - Mar 1943     Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino   (b. 1894 - d. 1973)
Mar 1943 -  6 Sep 1943     Alberto Pariani                    (b. 1876 - d. 1955)
German military commander 
 8 Sep 1943 -  1 Jun 1944  Theodor Geib                       (b. 1885 - d. 1944)
Director-general
 1 Jun 1944 -  2 Oct 1944  Otto Gullmann                      (b. 1887 - d. 1963)
Chairman of Provisional Executive Committee
14 Sep 1943 - 20 Oct 1943  Ibrahim Aqif Bej Biçaku            (b. 1905 - d. 1972)
Chairman of High Council of Regency 
20 Oct 1943 - 25 Oct 1944  Mehdi Abdyl Bej Frashëri           (s.a.)
Chairman Presidium of Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation
26 May 1944 - 12 Jan 1946  Omer Nishani                       (b. 1887 - d. 1954)  PCS
                             (in opposition to 25 Oct 1944)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the People's Assembly

12 Jan 1946 -  1 Aug 1953  Omer Nishani                       (s.a.)               PCS;1948 PPS
                             (chairman Presidium of Constituent
                             Assembly to 16 Mar 1946)
 1 Aug 1953 - 22 Nov 1982  Haxhi Halit Lleshi                 (b. 1913 - d. 1998)  PPS
22 Nov 1982 - 30 Apr 1991  Ramiz Tafë Alia                    (s.a.)               PPS
Presidents
30 Apr 1991 -  3 Apr 1992  Ramiz Tafë Alia                    (s.a.)               Non-party
 3 Apr 1992 -  6 Apr 1992  Kastriot Selman Islami (acting)    (b. 1952)            PSS
 6 Apr 1992 -  9 Apr 1992  Pjetër Filip Arbnori (acting)      (b. 1935 - d. 2006)  PDS
 9 Apr 1992 - 24 Jul 1997  Sali Ram Berisha                   (b. 1944)            PDS 
24 Jul 1997  (hours)       Skënder Et'hem Gjinushi (acting)   (b. 1949)            PDS
24 Jul 1997 - 24 Jul 2002  Rexhep Kemal Mejdani               (b. 1944)            PSS 
24 Jul 2002 - 24 Jul 2007  Alfred Spiro Moisiu                (b. 1929)            Non-party
24 Jul 2007 - 24 Jul 2012  Bamir Myrteza Topi                 (b. 1957)            PDS
24 Jul 2012 -              Bujar Faik Nishani                 (b. 1966)            PDS 
 

Prime minister
15 Mar 1914 -  3 Sep 1914  Turhan Pashë Permeti (1st time)    (s.a.)               Non-party 
Chairman of the Senate
(in eastern Albania, under Bulgarian occupation)
1915 - 1916                Hasan Basri Bej Dukagjini                               Non-party 
Head of the Civil Administration
(under Austro-Hungarian occupation)
Jan 1916 - 13 Nov 1918     August Ritter von Kral             (s.a.)               Non-party 
                            (from 14 Apr 1917, chairman of Administrative Council)
Prime ministers

25 Dec 1918 - 21 Feb 1920  Turhan Pashë Permeti (2nd time)    (s.a.)               Non-party 
                             (in Durrës to Feb 1920)
27 Mar 1920 - 14 Nov 1920  Sulejman Bej Delvina               (s.a.)
10 Dec 1920 - 19 Oct 1921  Ilias Bej Vrioni (1st time)        (b. 1882 - d. 1932)
19 Oct 1921 -  6 Dec 1921  Pandeli Evangjeli (1st time)       (b. 1859 - d. 1949)
 6 Dec 1921 -  7 Dec 1921  Qazim Koculi (acting)              (b. 1887 - d. 1943)
 7 Dec 1921 - 12 Dec 1921  Hasan Bej Pristina                 (b. 1873 - d. 1933)
12 Dec 1921 - 24 Dec 1921  Idhomene Kosturi (acting)          (s.a.)
30 Dec 1921 - Jan 1922     Omer Pashë Vrioni                  (s.a.)
Jan 1922 -  4 Dec 1922     Xhafer Asilan Bej Ypi              (s.a.)               SPP
 4 Dec 1922 -  5 Mar 1924  Amet Zogu (1st time)               (s.a.)               SPP
 5 Mar 1924 -  2 Jun 1924  Shefqet Bej Vërlaci (1st time)     (s.a.)               PP
 2 Jun 1924 - 16 Jun 1924  Ilias Bej Vrioni (2nd time)        (s.a.)
16 Jun 1924 - 26 Dec 1924  Bishop Theofan "Fan" Stilian Noli  (s.a.)               DP
26 Dec 1924 -  6 Jan 1925  Ilias Bej Vrioni (3rd time)        (s.a.)
 6 Jan 1925 - 30 Jan 1925  Amet Zogu (2nd time)               (s.a.)
Ministers of Justice (acting as chief ministers)
 1 Feb 1925 - 28 Sep 1925  Pjetër Poga (Petro Poga)(1st time) (b. 1850 - d. 1945)
28 Sep 1925 - 20 Dec 1926  Milto Tutulani 
20 Dec 1926 - 12 Feb 1927  Sif Kedhi
12 Feb 1927 - 26 Oct 1927  Pjetër Poga (Petro Poga)(2nd time) (s.a.)
26 Oct 1927 - 15 May 1928  Ilias Bej Vrioni (acting)          (s.a.)
15 May 1928 -  7 Sep 1928  Hiqmet Delvina
Prime ministers
10 Sep 1928 -  5 Mar 1930  Koço Kota (1st time)               (b. 1889 - d. 1947)
 5 Mar 1930 - 22 Oct 1935  Pandeli Evangjeli (2nd time)       (s.a.)
22 Oct 1935 -  9 Nov 1936  Mehdi Abdyl Bej Frashëri (1st time)(s.a.)
 9 Nov 1936 -  8 Apr 1939  Koço Kota (2nd time)               (s.a.)
11 Apr 1939 -  4 Dec 1941  Shefqet Bej Vërlaci (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PFS
 4 Dec 1941 - 19 Jan 1943  Mustafa Merlika-Kruja              (b. 1887 - d. 1958)  PFS
19 Jan 1943 - 13 Feb 1943  Eqrem Bej Libohova (1st time)      (b. 1882 - d. 1948)  PFS
13 Feb 1943 - 12 May 1943  Maliq Bej Bushati                  (b. 1880 - d. 1946)
12 May 1943 -  9 Sep 1943  Eqrem Bej Libohova (2nd time)      (s.a.)
25 Sep 1943 - 24 Oct 1943  Ibrahim Aqif Bej Biçaku            (s.a.)
24 Oct 1943 -  3 Nov 1943  Mehdi Abdyl Bej Frashëri (2nd time)(s.a.)
 4 Nov 1943 - 18 Jul 1944  Rexhep Bej Mitrovica               (b. 1888 - d. 1967)
18 Jul 1944 - 26 Oct 1944  Fiqri Bej Dine                     (d. 1960)
22 Oct 1944 -  1 Jan 1946  Enver Hoxha (provisional)          (s.a.)               PCS
Chairmen of the Council of Ministers
 1 Jan 1946 - 20 Jul 1954  Enver Hoxha                        (s.a.)               PCS;1948 PPS
20 Jul 1954 - 18 Dec 1981  Mehmet Shehu                       (b. 1913 - d. 1981)  PPS
18 Jan 1982 - 22 Feb 1991  Adil Çarçani                       (b. 1922 - d. 1997)  PPS
                             (acting to 15 Jan 1982)
Prime ministers
22 Feb 1991 -  5 Jun 1991  Fatos Thanas Nano (1st time)       (b. 1952)            PPS
 5 Jun 1991 - 10 Dec 1991  Ylli Bufi                          (b. 1948)            PSS 
10 Dec 1991 - 13 Apr 1992  Vilson Faik Ahmeti                 (b. 1951)            Non-party
13 Apr 1992 - 11 Mar 1997  Aleksandër Gabriel Meksi           (b. 1939)            PDS
11 Mar 1997 - 24 Jul 1997  Bashkim Muhamet Fino               (b. 1962)            PSS
24 Jul 1997 -  2 Oct 1998  Fatos Thanas Nano (2nd time)       (s.a.)               PSS
 2 Oct 1998 - 29 Oct 1999  Pandeli Sotir Majko (1st time)     (b. 1967)            PSS
29 Oct 1999 - 22 Feb 2002  Ilir Rexhep Meta                   (b. 1969)            PSS
22 Feb 2002 - 31 Jul 2002  Pandeli Sotir Majko (2nd time)     (s.a.)               PSS
31 Jul 2002 - 11 Sep 2005  Fatos Thanas Nano (3rd time)       (s.a.)               PSS
11 Sep 2005 -              Sali Ram Berisha                   (s.a.)               PDS 
 

Italian High Commissioners
1919 - 1920                Vincenzi
Mar 1920 - Jun 1920        Fortunato Castoldi                 (b. 1876 - d. 1961)
1920 -  3 Sep 1920         Gaetano conti Manzoni              (b. 1871 - d. 1937)
Italian Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers
Plenipotentiary (since the Treaty of 1926)
 9 Mar 1926 - 1927         Pompeo barone Aloisi               (b. 1875 - d. 1949)
 4 Jul 1927 - 1930         Ugo Sola                           (b. 1888 - d. 19..)
1930 - 1932                Antonio Marchese Meli-Lupi di      (b. 1885 - d. 1971)
                             Soragna 
Nov 1932 - 1934            Armando Odatino Koch
1934 - 1936                Mario barone Indelli               (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
 9 Sep 1936 - 22 Apr 1939  Francesco Jacomoni di San Savino   (s.a.)
Commanders of the Italian Forces in Albania
(from 1941, also in command of Italian forces in Montenegro)
 7 Apr 1939 -  5 Dec 1939  
Alfredo Guzzoni                    (s.a.)
 5 Dec 1939 -  5 Jun 1940  Carlo Geloso                       (b. 1879 - d. 1957)
 5 Jun 1940 - Nov 1940     Sebastiano Visconti Prasca         (b. 1883 - d. 1961)
 9 Nov 1940 - 13 Jan 1941  Ubaldo Soddu                       (b. 1889 - d. 1949)
13 Jan 1941 -  1941        Ugo Cavallero                      (b. 1880 - d. 1943)
1941 - Mar 1941            Mario Vercellino                   (b. 1879 - d. 1961) 
Mar 1941 - Jul 1941        Alessandro Pirzio Biroli           (b. 1877 - d. 1962)
1941 - 1942                Camillo Mercalli                   (b. 1882 - d. 1974)
 1 Oct 1942 -  9 Jan 1943  Lorenzo Dalmazzo (1st time)
        (b. 1886 - d. 19..)
 9 Jan 1943 - 1943         Costa
1943 - Sep 1943           
Lorenzo Dalmazzo (2nd time)        (s.a.)

National Committee for a Free Albania
[Albanian flag]
26 Aug 1949                National Committee for a Free Albania founded in exile.
1957?                      Dissolved.
Presidents
1949 -  1 Oct 1949         Midhat Frashëri                    (b. 1880 - d. 1949)
                             (in London exile; from 1949 in New York)
1949 - 1957?               Hasan Aga Dosti                    (b. 1895 - d. 1991)

Free Albanian Council

10 May 1951                Free Albanian Council formed in Prizren, Yugoslavia.
195.                       Dissolved.

Chairman of the League of Albanian Political Refugees
10 May 1951 - 1952?        Gani Kryeziu (in Yugoslavia exile) (b. 1900 - d. 1952)



Multinational Protection Force in Albania 

[Multinational Protection Force flag 1997]
Commander of the Multinational Protection Force (FMP)
16 Apr 1997 - 11 Aug 1997  Luciano Forlani (Italy)            (b. 1940)


 ¹Full style of the ruler: 
(a) constitutional style 21 Feb 1914: Princ Sovran e Shqipërisë ("Sovereign Prince of Albania"); in informal and some official use, instead: Mbret ("King");
(b)  1 Sep 1928 -  8 Apr 1939: Mbret i Shqiptarëve ("King of the Albanians"); 
(c) 16 Apr 1939 -  3 Sep 1943: Mbret i Shqipërisë ("King of Albania").
Territorial Disputes: None.
Party abbreviations: PDS = Partia Demokratike ë Shqipërisë (Democratic Party of Albania, conservative, est.Dec 1990); PSS = Partia Socialiste ë Shqipërisë (Socialist Party of Albania, social-democratic, former PPS, est.1991); 
- Former parties: DP = Partia Demokratike (Democratic Party, radical liberal, est.Jul 1924, banned 1924); GP = Government Party (authoritarian, pro-Zogu, 1922-1939); PFS = Partia Fascist Shqipërisë (Albanian Fascist Party, 1943 renamed Guard of Great Albania, Apr 1939-Feb 1943); PP = Progressive Party; PPS = Partia e Punës e Shqipërisë (Albanian Workers' Party, communist, only legal party 1948-1991, as Communist Party of Albania [PCS] 1941-48, from Jun 1991 PSS); SPPShqipërisë Partia Popullore (Albanian Popular Party, liberal progressive, est.1920)



Autonomous Korça (Korce) French Occupied Zone
[Autonomous Korça (Korce) French Occupied Zone, 1916-1918]
       10 Dec 1916 - 16 Feb 1918
 
Map of Korce Region 1916
Capital: Korce (Korça)
Jun 1916                   French occupation of south eastern Albania.
10 Dec 1916                Autonomous Province of Korça - also sometimes styled
                             "Albanian Republic of Korça" (Republika Shqipëtare e Korçës
                             formed.
16 Feb 1918                Korça autonomy abolished by French authorities.
 1 Mar 1918                Albanian Military Frontier Region created.
13 Mar 1920                French restore Shkodër to Albania. 
26 May 1920                End of French administration.
 
Governors-delegate of the Territory of Korça 
10 Dec 1916 - 11 May 1917  Henri Descoins                      (b. 1869 - d. 1930)
1917 - 1918                Salle
French Commander in Shkodër (Scutari)
1918 - 13 Mar 1920         Joseph-Marie-François Albert Bardi  (b. 1866 - d. 1945)
                             de Fourtou
Commanders of the Albanian Military Frontier Regions (Confins Albanais)
Mar 1918 - Oct 1918        Joseph-Marie-François Albert Bardi  (s.a.)
                             de Fourtou
Oct 1918 - Oct 1919        Reynard Lespinasse
Oct 1919 - 26 May 1920     Cretin   Head of Executive Power, with the title of Prefect of Police
10 Dec 1916 -  9 Nov 1917  Themistokli Gërmenji                (b. 1871 - d. 1917)
Chairman of the Albanian Administrative Council
Mar 1917 - Feb 1918        Qani Dishnica 



Italian Occupied Zone [Kingdom of Italy flag]
Map of Albania 1916
Headquarters: Valona (Vlore)
27 Dec 1914                Italy occupies Valorë and parts of Southern Albania.
 3 Jun 1917                Albanian independence under an Italian protectorate declared 
                             by Italy (this is opposed by most Albanians).
Nov 1918                   Former Austro-Hungarian occupied areas part of Italian zone. 
1919                       Albanian provisional government recognized by Italy as the legal 
                             government of the protected zone.
22 Aug 1920                Italy agrees to recognize the total independence of Albania and
                             withdraw its troops.
 3 Sep 1920                Italian troops withdrawn.
High Commissioners
1919 - 1920                Vincenzi
Mar 1920 - Jun 1920        Fortunato Castoldi                   (b. 1876 - d. 1961)
1920 -  3 Sep 1920         Gaetano Conti Manzoni                (b. 1871 - d. 1937)
Military Governor of Valona
26 Dec 1914 - 1915         Fortunato Castoldi                   (s.a.)
Commander of the Occupation Corps of Valona
27 Dec 1914 - 1915         Emanuele Mosca
Commanders of the Expeditionary Force in Durrës
Dec 1915 - 1916            Domenico Guerrini
 1 Feb 1916 - 28 Feb 1916  Giacinto Ferrero (1st time)          (b. 1862 - d. 1922)
Commanders of the Special Italian Corps
20 Nov 1915 -  8 Mar 1916  Emilio Bertotti
 8 Mar 1916 - 17 Jun 1916  Settimio Piacentini                  (b. 1851 - d. 1921)
Commanders of the Occupation Forces 
22 Jun 1916 - 11 Dec 1916  Oreste Bandini                       (b. 1862 - d. 1916)
11 Dec 1916 - 16 May 1917  Giacinto Ferrero (2nd time)          (s.a.)
Commander of the XVI Army Corps in Albania
16 May 1917 - Apr 1919     Giacinto Ferrero                     (s.a.) 
Commander of Italian Troops in Albania
Apr 1919 -  3 Sep 1920     Settimio Piacentini                  (s.a.)

Secretary for Civil Affairs in Albania
1916 - 191.                Ugo Capialbi                         (b. 1880 - d. 1930)


Northern Epirus

 
[Provisional Government of Epirus 1914]
            Mar 1914 - 1914 

[Greek government of Epirus 1914-1915]
                  1914 - 1915

[Possible flag of Northern Epirus in 1915-1916]
                  1915 - 1916 

Capital: Korce
Population: N/A
 6 Mar 1913 - 31 Mar 1914  Greek occupation.
 2 Mar 1914                Revolutionary government.
14 Oct 1914 - 10 Aug 1916  Greek occupation.
Apr 1916                   Incorporation into Albania declared.
 8 Dec 1940 - 24 Apr 1941  Greek occupation.
President of the Provisional Government
 2 Mar 1914 - Apr 1916     Georgios Christaki Zographos         (b. 1863 - d. 1920)
Commanders of the Greek Army of Epirus
 8 Dec 1940 - 1941         Konstantinos Davakis                 (b. 1897 - d. 1943)
1941 - 24 Apr 1941         Ioannis Pitsikas                     (b. 1881 - d. 19..)
Military Governor
1941                       Theodoros Pangalos                   (b. 1878 - d. 1952)  



Mirditë Republic
 
[Mirdite Republic, 1921 (Albania)]
        17 Jul 1921 - 20 Nov 1921
 
[Mirdite Flag variant (Albania)]
               Reported Variant
Capital: Orosh
Population: N/A
17 Jul 1921                Republic of Mirdita (Republika e Mirditës) proclaimed in north
                             
Albania by Roman Catholic clans supported by Yugoslavia.
20 Nov 1921                Extinguished by Albania.
President
17 Ju1 1921 - 20 Nov 1921  Gjon Marka Gjoni                     (b. 1861 - d. 1925)



Saseno (Sazan) Island  [Kingdom of Italy flag]
Map of Saseno Island
Population: N/A
 5 Nov 1815                Sason Island, commanding the Bay of Valona, is part of
                             Ionian Islands British Protectorate (
previously part of
                             Venetian possessions by 1696)(see under Greece).
 1 Jun 1864                Ceded to Greece with the rest of the Ionian Islands, but
                             is neutralized
.
19 Dec 1913                Allied Ambassadors Conference includes Saseno within Albania
                             in protocol of Florence.
13 Jun 1914                Ceded to Albania by Greece.
30 Oct 1914                Occupied by Italy.
26 Apr 1915                Ceded to Italy by Treaty of London (Isola di Saseno).
 2 Sep 1920                Formally ceded to Italy by Albania. 
19 Dec 1920                Part of Italian commune of Lagosta.
18 Jan 1923 -  7 Jun 1941 
Included within Italian province of Zara.
 7 Jun 1941 - 1943         Included within Italian province of Cattaro within Dalmatia.
Sep 1943 - May 1944        Occupied by Germany.
May 1944                   Occupied by Albania.
10 Feb 1947                Formally ceded to Albania by Italy (Sazan/Sanzit). 


Italian Commanders of Saseno (in Valona)
30 Oct 1914 - 17 May 1916  ....
17 May 1916 – 17 Feb 1917  Enrico Millo                         (b. 1885 - d. 1930)
Feb 1917 – 14 Mar 1917     Emilio Solari
                       (b. 1864 - d. 1954)
14 Mar 1917 –  7 Jun 1917  Mario Casanuova Ierserinch
 7 Jun 1917 – 20 Nov 1917  Stefano Morino
21 Nov 1917 –  8 Jan 1918  Ugo Rombo
 8 Jan 1918 –  6 Mar 1918  Paolo Marzolo
 6 Mar 1918 – 15 Oct 1918  Diego Simonetti
15 Oct 1918 – 1918?        Pio Lobetti-Bodoni
1918? - 31 Aug 1920        ....
Commanders on Saseno

31 Aug 1920 - 1921         Edoardo Gaio
13 Sep 1921 - 1922         Roberto Somigli
 8 Apr 1922 - 1922         Gaetano Sansone
 1 Sep 1922 - 1923         Antonio Celozzi
16 Apr 1923 - 1923         Emilio Brenta
1923 - 1924                Edoardo Roggeri
1924 - 1926                Pietro Barone
1926 - 1937                Emilio Bonfigli (1st time)
1927 - 1928                Gaetano Correale
1928 - 1929                Giuseppe Fiorentino
1929 - 1930                Carlo Petrusio
1930 - 1931                Emilio Bonfigli (2nd time)
1931 - 1935                Enzo Vannini
29 Mar 1935 – 21 Feb 1938  Giacinto Mazzella
 4 Jun 1938 - 1940         Giuseppe Lauricella
 8 Aug 1940 - 1943         Giuseppe Donegani
 6 Jun 1943 – 10 Sep 1943  Domenico Vigliotta
Sep 1943 - May 1944        .... (German)






© Ben Cahoon 

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